Cappadocia… a UNESCO World Heritage Site,in Central Anatolia, is known for it’s unique rock formations ,fairy chimneys,underground cities, cave churches and houses carved in the rocks. The name ‘Cappadocia’ comes from the Persian word ‘Katpaktukya’ which can be translated to ‘The Land of Beautiful Horses’. Today, horses are still vital to the locals as they offer a substitute method of transport for tourists.
The chimneys are a result of a geologic process that began millions of years ago, when volcanic eruptions rained ash and lava across what would eventually become Turkey. That ash hardened into tuff, a porous rock, which was covered by a layer of basalt. Finally, the long work of erosion began. As millennia passed, the softer tuff wore down, giving way to pillars that stand as tall as 130 feet. The harder basalt erodes more slowly, forming a protective, mushroom-shaped cap over each one.
Geographical events while creating the fairy chimneys, in the historical process, people carved houses and churches inside these fairy chimneys, adorned them with frescoes, and carried the traces of ancient civilizations from thousands of years old to now. Since it was located on the the historic Silk Road trading route,century after century, the area was raided and invaded by a who's who of European Empire builders;The Hittites, The Persians, Alexander The Great, The Romans, The Byzantines, and The Ottomans all laid claim to the land at one time or another.
In the 3rd and 4th centuries Christians who escape from the cruelty of Roman Empire, based in this region. They started to farm and used Pigeon feces as fertilizer to enrich fields in the area.
Those Christian people were the one who build the famous underground cities of Cappadocia by carving the soft rocks.
And they herited us these beautiful cave houses, underground cities, historial churches together with other geographical wonders around.